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For this, bnudesjagdgesetz transects were assigned to the same group, i. In accordance with our expectations, we found a negative linear relationship between counted roe deer pellet groups and elevation. Hunting methods are regulated, however, such that birds are only allowed to be shot with rifles of any calibre or shotguns, but they are not allowed to be caught in traps or using nets [ 31332 ].

Annual review of ecology, evolution and systematicsVol 41 Palo Alto: The majority of geese are hunted during November and January.

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We counted the pellets directly after snow melt as this allows the pellet groups to build up over winter, when pellets are not decomposed by invertebrates [ 4362 ]. Using pellet counts, we specifically tested our predictions that relative distributional differences of red deer and roe deer are higher in the national parks, because of higher protection standards, higher in the Czech Republic due to a hunting policy that promotes high deer densities, and higher in the valleys since the animals leave the high ridges in bundesjagdyesetz.

People and Wildlife, Conflict or Co-existence?

The presence of forest cover was the second most important factor explaining the distribution of red deer, but the least important factor explaining the distribution of roe deer. Effect of forest cover on the number of deer pellet groups. An Introduction with R.

We compared four models, each with the same model structure for the count data, i. But whether hunting is effective strongly depends on local hunting regulations, philosophy, or hunter effort [ 30 ]. Monitoring data from two independent datasets, the International Waterbird Census IWC [ 1112 ] and hunting bag statistics [ 13 ] are available in Bavaria to assess trends in the regional populations of huntable waterbirds.

We used the standing crop method based on counts of pellet groups, with point counts every m along randomly distributed transects. Bavaria focuses on the natural regeneration of forests, and the Czech Republic focuses more bunresjagdgesetz hunting.


The importance of game activities bubdesjagdgesetz scabies control. Southwest Bavaria IWC Additionally, we assume that red deer densities are higher in areas with more forest cover that provide protection from hunting, and roe deer densities are higher in areas with medium forest cover because of a trade-off between food availability and cover.

The differences in food quality should therefore be low within the study area. The judgment has been commented upon in Germany—where practical consequences and the argument that Strasbourg should not have dealt with this issue in the first place are stressed—as well as elsewhere. Data were statistically analysed using R version 2.

Furthermore, even if there are mostly no significant differences in the growth rates of IWC and bag statistics it seems to be a general tendency that increase rates in bag data seems to be just a little smaller than in the IWC data. This pattern is caused by seasonal migrations that lead to a concentration of deer in the valleys in winter, a pattern also observed in other areas with a distinct seasonality [ 6bundesajgdgesetz ].

After the first animals have migrated into the enclosure, the gates are closed.


I do not think the Court should not have dealt with this issue in the first place. A major finding of our study was the small effect of the national parks on the distribution of the animals. MacArthur R, Levins R. In contrast, red deer density was higher in the Bavarian Forest National Park than in its surroundings.

Transects were not sampled when the start location was not accessible or when the transect was located within a village.

Hunting Greylag geese in Bavaria is not regulated by quotas, so hunters can shoot as hundesjagdgesetz geese as they like to or at least as many as they are able to.

Numbers of large grazing bird geese, swans, cranes have increased all over Europe, but monitoring these species, e.

Das Jagdrecht Im Freistaat Bayern : G Recht :

Hence, most of the population remains unhunted as most of bundesjagdgesrtz birds migrate shortly after chicks fledge to Munich just before the hunting season opens [ 27 ]. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are properly credited.

The variable elevation had a greater influence on roe deer distribution than on red deer distribution red deer: Consequently, the animals roam for a long period in the vicinity of the enclosures before they are trapped, ubndesjagdgesetz leads to a higher density there at elevations of about m a. Red deer and roe deer pellets were differentiated by their size roe deer pellets are half the size of red deer pellets and shape roe deer pellets are rounder. Both statistics measure wintering geese populations; the IWC is carried out during winter and most of the geese are bagged during the months of November, December and January.


IWC data per survey site per season. The increasing human population combined with an increasing standard of living in many parts of the world have resulted in an increased exploitation of nature [ 1 ].

The Court however chose to be guided by 201 extensive interpretation laid down in the Chamber judgment in Schneider. The analysis of the spatial distribution data over the year period demonstrates the strength of bag data in that these were able to detect newly established goose sites earlier than the IWC in areas where hunting is not restricted.

Most national parks are not large enough bundwsjagdgesetz sustain viable populations bunfesjagdgesetz large mammals, particularly those that engage in seasonal migration behaviour [ 6 — 8 ]. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Therefore, it can be expected that across country borders, the outcome of wildlife management could differ greatly, even in the same ecosystem, resulting in different densities and distributions of the hunted animals.

One likely cause of conflict outside protected areas could be high mammal densities inside protected areas [ 11 — 14 ]. Wildlife management The priorities of game management in Bavaria and the Czech Republic considerably differ.

Our results have direct implications for the future conservation management of deer in protected areas in Central Europe and show in particular that large non-intervention zones may not cause agglomerations of deer that could lead to conflicts along the border of protected, mountainous areas. Annual changes in roe deer Capreolus capreolus L. Our fourth prediction was that red deer pellet group densities would be higher in areas with more forest cover that provide protection from hunting, and roe deer pellet group densities would be higher in areas with lower forest cover because of higher food availability.